1. introduction

1-1 Purpose of this study.

1-2 significance of this study.


  1. teaching speaking in EFL contexts

2 In junior high school.


3 research questions

How can teachers help students in teaching speaking English?


4 Effective ways of teaching speaking in Japanese junior high school.


4-2 Cycle of teaching speaking

4-3 Motivating students

4-4 The merits of communicative language teaching and how to assessment.


5 Conclusion

5-1 Summary of this research paper

5-2 Further research


6 References

Synthesis Paper

I read three articles about speaking English. There are two major approaches for the teaching of speaking English in the EFL or ESL junior high school.

The first approach is that teachers should use English as much as possible. In other words, teacher should make students exposure English like in the foreign country which national language is English. Tuan and Mai, (2015) says that teachers should speak using target language in the classroom frequently in order to expose students more to English language and to encourage them to use English in the classroom discourse. As you can see this article, it is important to exposure a lots. In addition, Lapkin et al (1990) says a lot of popular programs and foreign language teaching methods try to replicate the target language environment through immersion programs, bilingual school curricula, and computer-assisted teaching. From this article, we can find that if native speaker teaches by using their speaking, student’s English ability will be improved. This means ALT plays a big role in the classroom. Therefore, I think English teachers should teach English with ALT.

The second approach is that teaching by teachers well is not enough. Motivating students by teachers is also important. In fact, there is not many chances to exposure English except classroom if students do not want to learn English. One of the good ways to motivate students is using YOUTUBE. Tryanti et al. (2018) asserted that podcast has significant impact on students’ listening comprehension, and raised students motivation to learn English. Also, A. Dincer (2012) says when teachers create autonomy-supportive climates in their schools, students can motivate themselves and internalize their learning goals, and so they become intrinsically motivated to learn English. We can find from these articles that motivating students is very important and teacher have to consider how to motivate students.

Annotated Bibliography 5

1 Reference

Gudu, Benter Oseno₍2015₎. Teaching Speaking Skills in English Language Using Classroom Activities in Secondary School Level in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice. Vol.6, No.35, 2015


2 Summary

In Kenya, English is second language so English is taught in primary school, secondary school and university. So people in Kenya should speak English well. The way of communicative teaching speaking English is considered by teachers in Kenya. Then speaking activity such as discussion, role play, debate and role play are taught as tasks. Almost Kenyans English learners could not speak English without their mother tongue. Teachers also do not teach in all English in the classroom so students do not have many chance to exposure English. So teachers should consider how students to exposure English by activities.


3 Assessment

I think this article is very useful for my research question. In Japan, English is used as a foreign language. So I do not think this is related to my research question at first. But I understand that countries whose people speak English as second language like Kenya have a similar problem to EFL country like Japan. Then, I think most language learners in the world have a same trouble that is area of speaking. So English as a second language or foreign language country’s paper is also useful my research question.


4 Reflection

I think the goal of this article is to tell learners and teachers how to learn or teach English. Education system in Kenya interests me. So I will refer to this article in my research topic.


Annotated BIbliography 4

1 Reference Hamad, Mona M.; Metwally, Amal Abdelsattar; Alfaruque, Sabina Yasmin₍2019₎ The Impact of Using YouTubes and Audio Tracks Imitation YATI on Improving Speaking Skills of EFL Learners. English Language Teaching; Vol. 12, No. 6.

2 Summary This article shows merits of using YouTube or Audio Tracks in learning English or teaching English. These days, a lot of people have smartphone or computer, so they can get a chance to watch YouTube easily. The way of using YouTube and Audio Tracks motivate students more than traditional ways according to recent research. Learning language by using YouTube is very useful not only just learn a language listening or speaking skills, but also materials to learn culture where the video is taken. Learners also can learn a language individually outside the class, so YouTube learning system should be used more.

3 Assessment This article is very useful for my research question. I had had no idea about using YouTube in the classroom before I read this article, so I became interested in this teaching way. I think the goal of this article is to prove the merit of the YouTube teaching method.

4 Reflection This article is related to my research. As I said, I had no idea to use YouTube to learn language. But actually, I search YouTube videos spoken in English after I read this article, there are many videos in English. I watched a video, the video is taken by the U.S. The speaker in the video speaks very fast actually, natural speed, so it is very hard to listening, but I can train my English. So I thought this way is very useful to learn language again.

Annotated Bibliography 3

1 Reference Khamkhien, Attapol ₍2010₎. Teaching English Speaking and English Speaking Tests in the Thai Context: A Reflection from Thai Perspective. English Language Teaching Vol.3 2 No.1

2 Summary This articles shows that the history of teaching speaking English and how to assess the test or students. In Thailand, people think that in the language learning area, writing, speaking, listening, reading, speaking is the most important and diffucult area because it can distinctly show the correctness and language errors that a language learner makes. In Thailand, English is not national language, also not second language, so it is hard to make a situation to communicate with people by using English. Therefore, both teachers and students English ability are not so high level. In order to make a classroom like a foreign country, teachers adopt Communicative Language Teaching. It can help students more communicate, but it is difficult to focus on learn new expression. This is problem for Thailand teachers.

3 Assessment This article is so useful for my research. Actually, it is Thailand article, so it is about Thailand teaching speaking English. But I thought Thailand situation of English teaching is similar to Japanese one. Thailand English teaching start at primary school, Japanese English teaching will start at primary school like Thailand from next year. So I think there are a lot of method that we can reference in teaching English.

4 Reflection This article is related to my research a little. Of course, there are a lot of ways that we can reference in teaching English, even different country as I said. But also there is difference. I think if I use this article, I have to research Thailand education more.

Annotated BIbliography 2

1 Reference

Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas; Göksu, Ali ₍2012₎. Promoting Speaking Accuracy and Fluency in Foreign Language Classroom: A Closer Look at English Speaking Classrooms. Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi Cilt-Sayı: 14-1 Yıl.


2 Summary

Many people think speaking language is the most difficult of the learning language. They want to improve their speaking ability, but they cannot do that. Therefore, teachers should help learners speak English in classroom and outside the class. Most people think that accuracy and fluency are not connected, but they affect each other. So teachers should consider how to connect accuracy and fluency. Not only teachers should consider that, but also students should consider about themselves learning. It is difficult to learn English only in the classroom. Students should learn speaking English outside the class voluntarily. But in order to make students learn, teachers have to motivate students. So teachers behavior is very important for students.


3 Assessment

This article is very useful for thinking about the way of teaching speaking English. My research topic is about speaking English. In this article, there are a lot of ways teaching speaking English. on the other hand, there are also the way of learning speaking English as a student. I can think teaching speaking as both teachers and students. Therefore, I think the goal of this article is that improvement of speaking English as a learner, then people who read this article become a teacher and make students speak English accuracy and fluency.


4 Reflection

This article is related to my research question, so it interests me. I would like to read this article again more carefully, then I want to get a answer.

Lesson20 Annotated Bibliography


Anne, B. (2019, January). Concepts for Teaching Speaking in the English Language classroom.  Language Education and Acquisition Research Network Journal, Volume 12, Issue 1


This article shows us that what is “teaching speaking” compare to “doing speaking”. This article said “doing speaking” is that teachers just let students do activities or speak English without main object. On the other hand, “teaching speaking” is that teachers consider how to develop students competence of speaking English deeply, and students can get knowledge of the way of speaking English fluency. In order to teach speaking English holistically and comprehensively, teacher should consider three things. First, Knowledge of language and discourse. Second, communication strategies. Third, core speaking skills. All of them are very important when teacher think how to teach speaking or second language in a classroom.

This article also describe a cycle of teaching speaking English. The cycle has 7 stages. First is focus learners’ attention on speaking. Second is provide input and/or guide planning. Third is conduct speaking tasks. Fourth is focus on language/skills/strategies. Fifth is repeat speaking tasks. Sixth is direct learners’ reflection on learning. Seventh is facilitate feedback on learning. For teachers, what is relevant about the cycle is that it assists them to focus systematically on planning each component, and to develop appropriate tasks and materials for learners at different stages of learning.


This article is useful for thinking about the way of teaching speaking English. I think the goal of this article is making English teachers teach speaking English better.


This article is related to my research because this article is about the way of teaching speaking English. I got an answer a little from this article. It is that good aspect of speaking English and how to teach speaking English.

Lesson2, For My Final project

My topic for my final project is “Speaking English”.    Most Japanese are not good at speaking English.  Unfortunately, I am not good at speaking English.  Then, I get a simple question, “Why cannot Japanese people speak English well?”  so I choose this topic.  When I was junior high school student, I have a friend who does not like English.  He cannot speak even alphabet.  Our English teacher also I taught him, but he cannot speak English even easy sentences at last.  At that time, I think speaking English ability difference between good English learner and bad English learner is very big.  Then, I thought how I could help bad English learner like him if I become teacher.  Also, now, I think, why is there big difference like this.  This question makes me interest to this topic “Speaking English”.  Now, I have a answer this topic.  This answer is simply my assumption.  The answer is speaking English is related to quantity of input English.  I think this answer include all of English learning.  Since I was about 8 years old, I have started learning English.  I learned English because my parents make me learn.  The learning is not like learning, that is like playing.  I just played English game, and sung English songs.  But I had a chance to touch English.  So I could learn English well.  I heard that my friend started learning English when he became junior high school.   I think it is very interesting story.  From 2020, elementary school student from 3rd grade must learn English.  From 3rd grade and 4th grade will just touch English but input English from such a young grade is good for Japanese English teaching especially speaking area.  I would like to know how I can teach speaking English and makes students like speaking English.